saltiel4JS-KCWeb2007Jack Saltiel

Professor of Chemistry

B.A., Magna cum Laude, Rice University, 1960

Ph.D., California Institute of Technology, 1964

 

 

 

Department of Chemistry
Florida State University
Tallahassee, FL 32306-4390
e-mail: jsaltiel@chemmail.chem.fsu.edu
tel: (850) 644-5405

Dr. Saltiel was a recipient of an NSF Postdoctoral Fellowship at the University of California at Berkeley, an R. A. Welch Foundation Lectureship, the 1998 Florida Award from the Florida Sections of the American Chemical Society, and is an Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Fellow. He was honored for his work in Photochemistry in a Symposium at the 1998 National ACS meeting in Boston and in a special issue of the Journal of Physical Chemistry [J. Phys. Chem. A, 1998, 102, 5320-5321].

Photochemistry of organic molecules; elucidation of the mechanisms of selected photochemical reactions by chemical and spectroscopic means.

We aim to determine the role, multiplicity and geometry of key electronically excited and ground state intermediates applying both chemical and spectroscopic means. We are guided by the premise that a detailed understanding of simple photochemical reactions establishes the proper foundation for the study of more complex photochemical and photobiological systems. Our methods include quantitative measurements of product quantum yields, determination of rate constants by employing steady-state and transient emission and absorption spectroscopy, use of triplet excitation transfer to sensitize or quench triplet reaction pathways, and studies of the effects of medium and temperature on the photochemical and photophysical events. An important goal is the integration of all the information into a self-consistent kinetics model for each reaction. Much of this work depneds on the use of computers.

A connecting thread that runs through much of our research is the elucidation of the various pathways that lead to the cis-trans photoisomerization of olefins. We continue to extend our well-recognized studies on stilbenes and 1,3-dienes to the diphenylpolyenes and the styrylarenes, molecules that combine properties of both systems. We have developed the method of principal component analysis with self-modeling (PCA-SM) to resolve the spectra of such systems into the separate contributions from distinct conformers. The ability to define conformer specific photochemistry and photophysics has led to several unambiguous validations of Havinga's (non-equilibrating excited rotamers) NEER principle. For instance, the pronounced excitation wavelength dependence of the cis-trans photoisomerization and photocyclization of cis-1-(2-naphthyl)-2-phenylethene is analogous to that in preVitamin D (Scheme 1) and is quantitatively explained in terms of selective conformer excitation. This is strong evidence that recent challenges to Havinga's NEER principle explanation of Vitamin-D related photochemistry are incorrect.  

Our work on the photochemistry of derivatives in the vitamin D field, supported initially by an industrial grant (Monsanto/Pharmacia/Roche Vitamins) and by NSF, uncovered hitherto unknown conformer specific photochemistry that should have a significant impact on the industrial production of the vitamin Ds and led to the 2007 patent shown below.

We are applying the methods developed in our conformer work (PCA-SM and the related singular value decomposition - SM) to the resolution of spectral matrices describing the time evolution of the intermediates in the photocycles of bacteriorhodopsin (BR) and selected site-specific mutants of BR. Our approach has the advantage in that it yields extremely accurate intermediate spectra and their time evolution as an initial step and relegates selection of a kinetics model for their interconversion to the final stage of the analysis. Fruitful research collaborations are in progress with research groups worldwide.

Our most recent efforts have been directed to unraveling cis-trans photoisomerization mechanisms in volume confining organic glasses at low temperature and in the solid state at room temperature. Our experimental confirmation of the bicycle-pedal photoisomerization mechanism (simultaneous two-bond isomerization in a polyene chromophore) 30 years after it was proposed is a gratifying accomplishment. We have been testing the Hula-twist photoisomerization   mechanism and have presented definitive evidence against it in 1,4-di-(o-tolyl)-1,3-butadiene.

RECENT  PUBLICATIONS

·         Saltiel, J.; Klima, R.; van de Burgt, L. J.; Wang, S.; Dmitrenko, O. “Temperature Dependence of the 1,6-Diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene Triplet Lifetime in Solution and Theoretical Evaluation of Triplet Conformer InterconversionJ. Phys. Chem. B 2010, ASAP on the web May 7, 2010. (Invited article, M. R. Wasielewski issue).

·         Saltiel, J.; Papadimitriou, D.; Krishna, T. S. R.; Huang, Z.-N.; Krishnamoorthy, G; Laohhasurayotin, S.; Clark, R. J. “Photoisomerization of All-cis-1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene in the Solid State and in Solution: A Simultaneous Three-Bond Twist Process  Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Eng. 2009, 48, 8082-8085.

·         Saltiel, J.; Smothers, W. K.; Schanze, K. S.; Charman. S. A.; Bonneau R. “2,5-Dimethyl-2,4-hexadiene Induced Photodechlorination of 9,10-DichloroanthracenePhotochem. Photobiol. Sci. 2009, 8, 856-867.

·         Saltiel, J.; Dmitrenko, O.;  Pillai, Z. S.; Klima, R.; Wang, S.; Wharton, T.;  Huang, Z.-N.; van de Burgt, L. J.;  Arranz, J. “Triplet and Ground State Potential Energy Surfaces of 1,4-Diphenyl-1,3-butadiene: Theory and Experiment” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 2008, 7, 566-577. (Invited article, Jakob Wirz issue). 

·         Saltiel, J.; Bremer, M. A.; Laohhasurayotin, S.; Krishna, T. S. R. “Photoisomerization of cis,cis- and cis,trans-1,4-Di-o-tolyl-1,3-butadiene in Glassy Media at 77 K: One Bond Twist and Bicycle-Pedal”, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Eng. 2008, 47, 1237-1240. Published on the web on January 5, 2008.

·         Fedorova, O. A.; Fedorov, Yu. V.; Shepel, N. E.; Gulakova, N; Alfimov, M. V.;Goli, U.; Saltiel, J.  “Supramolecular Photochemical Synthesis of an Unsymmetrical Cyclobutane” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 2007, 6, 1097 – 1105.

·         Saltiel, J.; Krishna, T. S. R.; Laohhasurayotin, S.; Fort, K.; Clark, R. J. “Photoisomerization of cis,cis- to trans,trans-1,4-Diaryl-1,3-butadienes in the Solid State: The Bicycle-Pedal Mechanism” J. Phys. Chem. A 2008, 112, 199-209.

·         Saltiel, J.; Wang, S. “The photochemistry and photophysics of all-trans-1,4-diindanylidenyl-2-butene, a rigid analogue of all-trans-1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 2006, 5, 883-895. (Invited paper, G. S. Hammond Memorial Issue) Published on the web on August 28, 2006. Featured on the cover of the October issue of the journal.

·         Fedorov, Yu.; Fedorova, O.; Schepel, N.; Alfimov, M.; Turek, A. M.; Saltiel, J. “The Photochemistry of a bis-Crown Ether Based on Benzobis(thiazole) and its Alkaline Earth Metal Cation Complexes” Photochem. Photobiol. 2006. 82, 1108-1115.

·         Saltiel, J.; Ivanov, R. A.; Gormin, D. A.; Krishna, T. S. R.; Clark, R. J. “Conformationally Restricted 2,5-Diphenyloxazoles: Failure of the Electromer Model for Anomalous Amplified Spontaneous Emission Spikes”  Mol. Phys. 2006, 104, 957-969. (Invited paper, M. Robb Issue.) 

·         Saltiel, J.; Krishna, T. S. R.; Turek, A. M.; Clark, R. J. “Photoisomerization of cis,cis-1,4-Diphenyl-1,3-butadiene in Glassy Media at 77 K: The Bicycle-Pedal Mechanism” J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. 2006, 1506-1508.

·         Saltiel, J.; Klima, R. F. “a-Methylstilbene and the Duality of Mechanism in the Quenching of Stilbene Triplets by Molecular OxygenPhotochem. Photobiol. 2006, 82, 38-42. Published on the web June 16, 2005. (Invited paper, Tito Scaiano Issue.)

·         Zimányi, L.; Saltiel, J.; Brown, L. S.; Lanyi, J. K. “A Priori Resolution of the Intermediate Spectra in the Bacteriorhodopsin Photocycle: The Time Evolution of two L Species Revealed” J. Phys. Chem. A 2006, 110, 2318-2321. Published on the web, February 1, 2006.

·         Saltiel, J.; Krishna, T. S. R.; Clark, R. J. “Photoisomerization of cis,cis-1,4-Diphenyl-1,3-butadiene in the Solid State: The Bicycle-Pedal Mechanism” J. Phys. Chem. A 2006, 110, 1694-1697. Published on the web, January 11, 2006.  

·            Fedorov, Yu. V.; Fedorova, O. A.; Shepel, N. E.; Gromov, S. P.; Alfimov, M. V.; Kuzmina, L. G.; Howard, J. A. K.; Saltiel, J.  “Synthesis, complexation, and photochemistry of benzobisthiazole-based bis(crown ether)” Russ. Chem. Bull. 2005, 54, 2119-2128.

·         Gromov, S. P.; Vedernikov, A. I.; Fedorov, Yu. V.; Fedorova, O. A.; Andryukhina, E. N.; Shepel', N. E.; Strelenko, Yu. A.; Johnels, D.; Edlund, U.; Saltiel, J.; Alfimov, M. V.  “Self-assembly of a (benzothiazolyl)ethenylbenzocrown ether into a sandwich complex and stereoselective [2+2] photocycloaddition”    Russ. Chem. Bull. 2005, 54, 1569-1579.

·         Fedorov, Yu.; Fedorova, O.; Schepel, N.; Gromov, S; Alfimov, M.; Turek, A. M.; Saltiel, J.“Synthesis and Multitopic Complex Formation of a Photochromic bis-Crown Ether Based on Benzobis(thiazole)” J. Phys. Chem. A 2005, 109, 8653-8660.

·         Saltiel, J.; Krishna, T. S. R.; Turek, A. M. “Photoisomerization of cis-1-(2-Naphthyl)-2-phenylethene in Methylcyclohexane at 77 K: No Hula-Twist” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127, 6938-6939.

·         Turek, A. M.; Krishnamoorthy, G.; Sears, D. F., Jr.; Garcia, I.; Dmitrenko, O.; Saltiel, J. “Resolution of Three Fluorescence Components in the Spectra of all-trans-1,6-Diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene under Isopolarizability Conditions” J. Phys. Chem. A 2005, 109, 293-303.

·         Saltiel, J.; Mace, J. M.; Watkins, L. P.; Gormin, D. A.; Clark, R. J.; Dmitrenko, O. "Biindanylidenes:  Role of Central Bond Torsion in Nonvertical Triplet Excitation Transfer to the Stilbenes” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2003, 125, 16158-16159.

·         Saltiel, J.; Krishnamoorthy, G.; Huang, Z; Ko, D.-H.; Wang, S. “The Photoisomerization of all-trans-1,6-Diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene. Temperature and Deuterium Isotope Effects” J. Phys. Chem. A 2003, 107, 3178-3186. 

·         Saltiel, J.; Cires, E.; Turek, A. “Conformer-Specific Photoconversion of 25-Hydroxytachysterol to 25-Hydroxyprevitamin D3: Role in the Production of Vitamin Ds” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2003, 125, 2866-2867.

·         Saltiel, J.; Krishnamoorthy, G.; Sears, D. F., Jr. “The Effect of Solvent Polarizability on the Fluorescence of trans-1-(2-Naphthyl)-2-phenylethene Conformers. Conformer-specific Fluorescence from the Cis Isomer” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 2003, 2, 1162–1168.

·         Saltiel, J.; Krishnamoorthy, G.; Huang, Z; Ko, D.-H.; Wang, S. “Stereoselective O2-Induced Photoisomerization of all-trans-1,6-Diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatrieneCan. J. Chem. 2003, 81, 673-679.

·         Aguiar, M.; Akcelrud, L.; Pinto, M. R.; Atvars, T. D. Z.; Karasz, F. E.; Saltiel, J. “Spectroscopic Evidence for Aggregation of Stilbene Derivatives in Solution” J. Photosci. 2003, 10, 149-155. 

·         Turek, A. M.; Krishnamoorthy, G.; Phipps, K.; Saltiel, J. “Resolution of Benzophenone Delayed Fluorescence and Phosphorescence with Compensation for Thermal Broadening” J. Phys. Chem. A 2002, 106, 6044-6052.

·         Fedorova, O. A.: Fedorov, Y. V.; Vedernikov, A. I.; Gromov, S. P.; Yescheulova, O. V.; Alfimov, M. V.; Woerner, M.; Bossmann, S.; Braun, A.; Saltiel, J. “Thiacrown Ether Substituted Styryl Dyes: Synthesis, Complex Formation and Multiphotochromic Properties” J. Phys. Chem. A 2002, 106, 6213-6222.

·         del Valle, J. C.; Turek, A. M.; Tarkalanov, N. D.; Saltiel, J. “Distortion of the Fluorescence Spectrum of Anthracene with Increasing Laser Pulse Excitation EnergyJ. Phys. Chem. A 2002, 106, 5101-5104.

·         Saltiel, J.; Sears, D. F., Jr.; Turek, A. M. “UV Spectrum of the High Energy Conformers of 1,3-Butadiene in the Gas Phase” J. Phys. Chem. A  2001, 105, 7569-7578.

·         Catalán, J.; Saltiel, J. “On the Origin of Nonvertical Triplet Excitation Transfer.  The Relative Role of Double-Bond and Phenyl-Vinyl Torsions in the Stilbenes” J. Phys. Chem. A 2001, 105, 6273-6276.

·         Saltiel, J.; Dmitrenko, O.; Reischl, W.; Bach, R. D. “The Triplet Potential Energy Surface of s-trans-2,4-Hexadiene. A Comparison of Theory and Experiment” J. Phys. Chem. A 2001, 105, 3934-3939.

·         Kulcsár, Á.; Saltiel, J.; Zimanyi, L. “Dissecting the Photocycle of the Bacteriorhodopsin E204Q Mutant from Kinetic Multichannel Difference Spectra. Extension of the Method of Singular Value Decomposition with Self-Modeling to Five Components” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001, 123, 3332-3340.

·         Saltiel, J.; Wang, S.; Watkins, L. P.; Ko, D.-H. “Direct Photoisomerization of the 1,6-Diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatrienes. Medium Effect on Triplet and Singlet Contributions” J. Phys. Chem. A 2000, 104, 11443-11450.

·  Catalán, J.; Zimányi, L.; Saltiel, J.  “Medium-Controlled Aggregation of trans-Stilbene” J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2000, 122, 2377-2378.

·         Saltiel, J.; del Valle, J. C.; Tarkalanov, N. “The Distortion of the Fluorescence Spectrum of all-trans-1,6-Diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene with Increasing Laser Pulse Excitation Energies” J. Phys. Chem. B 1999, 103, 9350-9355.

·  Alfimov, M. V.; Gromov, S. P.; Fedorov, Y. V.; Fedorova, O. A.; Vedernikov, A. I.; Churakov, V.; Kuz’mina, L G.; Howard, J. A. K.; Bossmann, S.; Braun, A.; Woerner, M. and Sears, Jr., D. F.; Saltiel, J. “Synthesis, Structure and Ion Selective Complexation of Trans and Cis Isomers of Photochromic Dithia-18-crown-6 Ethers” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1999, 121, 4992-5000.

·         Zimányi, L.; Kulcsár, Á.; Lanyi, J. K. Sears, Jr., D. F.; Saltiel, J.  “Intermediate Spectra and Photocycle Kinetics of the Asp96Asn Mutant Bacteriorhodopsin Determined by Singular Value Decomposition with Self-Modeling” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 1999, 96, 4414-4419.

·         Zimányi, L.; Kulcsár, Á.; Lanyi, J. K. Sears, Jr., D. F.; Saltiel, J.  “Singular Value Decomposition with Self-Modeling Applied to Determine Bacteriorhodopsin Intermediate Spectra. Analysis of Simulated DataProc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 1999, 96, 4408-4413.

·         Saltiel, J.; Wang, S.; Ko, D.-H.; Gormin, D. A. "Cis-Trans Photoisomerization of the 1,6-Diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatrienes in the Triplet State. The Quantum Chain Mechanism and the Structure of the Triplet State" J. Phys Chem. A. 1998, 102, 5383-5392.

·  Saltiel, J.; Crowder, J. M.; Wang, S. “Mapping the Potential Energy Surfaces of the 1,6-Diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene Ground and Triplet States” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1999, 121, 895-902, 5352.

·         Saltiel, J.; Zhang, Y.; Sears, Jr., D. F. "Temperature Dependence of the Photoisomerization of cis-1-(2-Anthryl)-2-phenylethene. Conformer-Specificity. Torsional Energetics and Mechanism" J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1997, 119, 11202-11210.

·         Saltiel, J.; Zhang, Y.; Sears, Jr., D. F. "Dependence of trans-1-(2-Anthryl)-2-phenylethene Conformer-Specific Fluorescence Spectra and Fumaronitrile Quenching Rate Constants on Temperature" J. Phys. Chem. A 1997, 101,7053-7060.

·         Steinbock, O.; Neumann, B.; Cage, B.; Muhller, S. C.; Saltiel, J.; Dalal, N. S. "A Demonstration of Principal Component Analysis for EPR Spectroscopy: Identifying Pure Compounds from Complex Spectra" Anal. Chem. 1997, 69, 3708-3713.

·         Saltiel, J.; Choi, J.-O.; Sears, Jr., D. F.; Eaker, D. W.; O'Shea, K. E.; Garcia, I. "Resolution of trans-1-(2-Naphthyl)-2-phenylethene Fluorescence in the Presence of Tri-n-butylamine into Pairs of Monomer and Exciplex Spectra. Selectivity in Conformer Quenching" J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1996, 118, 7478-7485.

·         Saltiel, J.; Zhang, Y.; Sears, Jr., D. F. "Highly Efficient Conformer-Specific Adiabatic Cis - Trans Photoisomerization of cis-1-(2-Anthryl)-2-phenylethene in S1" J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1996, 118, 2811-2817.

·         Hilinski, E. F.; McGowan, W. M.; Sears, Jr., D. F.; Saltiel, J. "Evolutions of Singlet Excited State Absorption and Fluorescence of all-trans-1,6-Diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene in the Picosecond Time Domain" J. Phys Chem. 1996, 100, 3308-3311.

·         Saltiel, J.; Wang, S. "Absorption and Fluorescence Spectra of a Rigid Analogue of all-trans-1,6-Diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene. Solvent Controlled Order Inversion of 21Ag and 11Bu Energy Levels" J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1995, 117, 10761-10762.

·         Saltiel, J.; Dabestani, R.; Sears, Jr., D. F.; McGowan, W. M.; Hilinski, E. F. "Photocycloaddition of 9,10-Dichloroanthracene to 2,5-Dimethyl-2,4-hexadiene.  The Singlet Pathway for [4+2]-Adduct Formation in Benzene" J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1995, 117, 9129-9138.

·         Saltiel, J.; Tarkalanov, N.; Sears, Jr., D. F. "Conformer Specific Adiabatic Cis to Trans Photoisomerization of cis-1-(2-Naphthyl)-2-phenylethene. A Striking Application of the NEER Principle" J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1995, 117, 5586-5587. 

·         Saltiel, J.; Zhang, Y.; Sears, Jr., D. F.; Choi, J.-O. "Fluorescence, Fluorescence-Excitation and Absorption Spectra of trans-1-(2-Anthryl)-2-phenylethene Conformers" Res. Chem. Intermed. 1995, 21, 899-921.

·         Saltiel, J.; Choi, J.-O.; Sears, Jr., D. F.; Eaker, D. W.; Mallory, F. B.; Mallory, C. W. "Effect of Spectral Shifts on the Resolution of trans-1-(2-Naphthyl)-2-phenylethene Conformer UV Spectra Based on Principal Component Analysis with Self-Modeling" J. Phys Chem. 1994, 98, 13162-13170. 

·         Saltiel, J.; Waller, A. S.; Sears, Jr., D. F.; Hoburg, E. A.; Zeglinski, D. M.; Waldeck, D. H. "Fluorescence Quantum Yields and Lifetimes of Substituted Stilbenes in n-Alkanes. A Rexamination of the Relationship between Solute Size and Medium Effect on Torsional Relaxation" J. Phys. Chem. 1994, 98, 10689-10698. 

·         Saltiel, J.; Ko, D.-H.; Fleming, S. A. "Differential Medium Effects on the Trans to Cis Photoisomerization of all-trans-1,6-Diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene. Competing Diradicaloid vs Zwitterionic Pathways" J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1994, 116, 4099-4100.

·         Saltiel, J.; Sears, Jr., D. F.; Choi, J.-O.; Sun, Y.-P.; Eaker, D. W. "The Fluorescence, Fluorescence-Excitation and UV Absorption Spectra of trans-1-(2-Naphthyl)-2-phenylethene Conformers" J. Phys. Chem. 1994, 98, 35-46.

·         Saltiel, J.; Waller, A. S.; Sears, Jr., D. F.; Garrett, C. Z. "Fluorescence Quantum Yields of trans-Stilbene-d0 and -d2 in n-Hexane and n-Tetradecane.  Medium and Deuterium Isotope Effects on Decay Processes" J. Phys. Chem. 1993, 97, 2516-2522.

·         Saltiel, J.; Waller, A. S.; Sears, Jr., D. F. "The Temperature and Medium Dependencies of cis-Stilbene Fluorescence. The Energetics for Twisting in the Lowest Excited Singlet State" J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1993, 115, 2453-2465.

·         Saltiel, J.; Sears, Jr., D. F.; Sun, Y.-P.; Choi, J.-O.  "Evidence for Ground State s-cis-Conformers in the Fluorescence Spectra of all-trans-1,6-Diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene" J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1992, 114, 3607-3612.

·         Saltiel, J.; A. S. Waller, A. S.; Sears, Jr., D. F.  "Dynamics of cis-Stilbene Photoisomerization: The Adiabatic Pathway to Excited trans-Stilbene" J. Photochem. Photobiol. A:  Chem. 1992, 65, 29-40.

·         Sun, Y.-P.; Saltiel, J.; Park, N. S.; Hoburg, E. A.; Waldeck, D. H. "Application of the Medium Enhanced Barrier Model to the Photoisomerization Dynamics of Substituted Stilbenes in n-Alkane Solvents" J. Phys. Chem. 1991, 95, 10336-10344.

·         Saltiel, J.; Marchand, G. R. "cis,trans-1,1'-Bicyclohexenyl:  Conformer Dependent Chemistry in Benzene and in Methanol" J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1991, 113, 2702-2708.

·         Saltiel, J.; Waller, A.; Sun, Y.-P.; Sears, Jr., D. F.  "cis-Stilbene Fluorescence in Solution.  Adiabatic 1c* to 1t* Conversion" J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1990, 112, 4580-4581.

·         Sun, Y.-P.; Saltiel, J. "Application of the Kramers Equation to Stilbene Photoisomerization in n-Alkanes using Translational Diffusion Coefficients to Define Microviscosity" J. Phys. Chem. 1989, 93, 8310-8316.

·         Saltiel, J.; Sun, Y.-P. "The Intrinsic Potential Energy Barrier for Twisting in the trans-Stilbene S1 State in Hydrocarbon Solvents" J. Phys. Chem. 1989, 93, 6246-6250. 

·         Sun, Y.-P.; Sears, Jr., D. F.; Saltiel, J. "Resolution of Benzophenone Delayed Fluorescence and Phosphorescence.  Evidence of Vibrationally Unrelaxed Prompt Fluorescence" J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1989, 111, 706-711.

·         Sun, Y.-P.; Sears, Jr., D. F.; Saltiel, J.; Mallory, F. B.; Mallory, C. W.; Buser, C. A. "Principal Component-Three Component Self Modeling Analysis Applied to trans-1,2-Di-(2-naphthyl)ethene Fluorescence" J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1988, 110, 6974-6984.

·         Sun, Y.-P.; Sears, Jr., D. F.; Saltiel, J. "Principal Component Self-Modeling Analysis Applied to Conformational Equilibration of 1,3-Butadiene Vapor. UV Spectra and Thermodynamic Parameters of the Two Conformers" J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1988, 110, 6277-6279.

·         Saltiel, J.; Atwater, B. W. "Spin-Statistical Factors on Diffusion-Controlled Reactions" Adv. Photochem. 1988, 14, 1-90.

·         Sun, Y.-P.; Sears, Jr., D. F.; Saltiel, J. "Three-Component Self-Modeling Technique Applied to Luminescence Spectra" Anal. Chem. 1987, 59, 2515-2519.

This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Nos. CHE 9612316, 9985895 and 0314784. Any opinions, findings and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation (NSF).