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CHM 1020--Chemistry for Liberal Studies--Spring 1999

Chemistry 1020--Lecture 2—Notes:


Composition of air:

Nitrogen, Oxygen, Argon (elements)
Carbon Dioxide, Water vapor (compounds)
Pollutants, Less than 1%
Carbon monoxide, ozone,
sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides
--express in ppm (parts per million)

Chemical properties: Neither Nitrogen nor Carbon dioxide support combustion (candle flame)


CO2 quenching candle flame
Oxygen--burning splint.
Balloon ignition: helium versus hydrogen. (nitrogen?)
End with hydrogen-oxygen mixture.explosion

Discuss phlogiston theory and discovery of oxygen.

To put these things in context, need to define some terms and develop some classifications. This may be old hat to most of you if you’ve had chemistry before, but be patient so we are all "on the same page".


Mixtures: (variable composition)
Homogeneous (uniform throughout) SOLUTIONS
Heterogeneous (not uniform throughout)

Pure Substances (fixed composition)


Two definitions: Operational and Theoretical





Can’t be broken down into simpler substance by chemical means Composed of identical particles called atoms (or molecules of identical atoms)


Composed of two or more elements in definite proportion by weight. Composed of identical particles called molecules (molecules made of atoms)


There are 109 known elements. Only about 90 occur naturally. The rest have been made artificially.

One of the major breakthroughs in chemistry was the organization of the elements in a periodic table.


Use web to show some periodic tables to obtain information on individual elements. Discuss symbols and names. Discuss organization into families.

While on the web, go through other items in the web site.

Web MC site
Chemweb site
Chemistry in Context site

Naming. Discuss names and origins

Diatomic elements (H2, O2, N2, F2. Cl2, Br2, I2)

Allotropes (ex. O2 and O3; diamond and graphite)


(metals and non-metals; alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, chalcogens, halogens, transition metals)

HOMEWORK—Do red numbered exercises—not to be turned in.


Compounds--naming--molecular formulas
Chemical equations
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