CHEMISTRY 2000C Spring 2005
Study Guide for Hour Test 2
Things to review from the first three chapters:
Naming alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, and aromatic compounds.
Naming cyclic alkanes and alkenes.
Names of alkyl and aryl radicals.
Ortho, meta, para positions in the benzene ring.
Some common names: toluene, phenol, aniline, styrene.
Meaning of "electrophile" and "nucleophile".
Hybridization of orbitals to carbon; sigma and pi bonding.
Drawing monomers from polymer structure.
Drawing a polymer section from a monomer structure.
Names and structures of a few common polymers. (polyethylene, polypropylene, polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene, teflon, polyisoprene, polybutadiene).
Vulcanization process for rubber.
Alcohols, Ethers, Phenols, and Thiols:
Naming alcohols from a structure; drawing a structure from a name. (Common and IUPAC names--Table 22.1)
Distinguishing primary, secondary, and tertiary alcohols; Oxidation reactions of these three types.
Dehydration of alcohols; Saytzeff's rule.
Naming ethers from a structure (common name: as alkyl or aryl ether; IUPAC name: as alkoxy alkane; Examples Table 22.5); Drawing structure from name.
Williamson synthesis of ethers.
Effect of hydrogen bonding on physical properties; relative water solubility and boiling points of alkanes, ethers and alcohols of similar molecular weight.
Acidic and basic properties of alcohols: oxonium ions and alkoxide ions.
Predicting acid base reactions; relative base strength of alkoxide, hydroxide, phenoxide, bicarbonate, carboxylate ion, water, and chloride ion.
Identifying acid base reactions: identifying the acid and base in the reactants and the conjugate acid and base in the products.
Identifying oxidation reduction reactions: identifying the reactant being oxidized and the reactant being reduced.
Some common names:
Aldehydes and Ketones:
Naming aldehydes and ketones from structure; drawing a structure from a name. (Common and IUPAC names for ketones).
Color tests for aldehydes: Tollens, Fehlings, and Benedicts tests. Know oxidizing reagent in each, and the products in the test.
Reduction of aldehydes and ketones to alcohols. (H
and a catalyst, LiAlH
Addition reactions to aldehydes and ketones: formation of hemiacetals, hemiketals, acetals, ketals, cyanohydrins, aldol self-condensation products.
Some common names: formaldehyde, formic acid, acetaldehyde, acetic acid, benzaldehyde, benzoic acid, acetone, acetophenone.
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