Naming of alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, cyclic alkanes, aromatic compounds,
alcohols, etc (because names of acids, esters, amides, and amines are based
upon the names of these fundamental structures).
Carboxylic Acids and Esters
IUPAC and common names of acids (including diacids through adipic acid and aromatic acids), esters, and the alcohol component of the esters. Be able to draw a structure from a name, or name a structure from a drawing.
Preparation of acids by oxidation of alcohols (primary only) and aldehydes,
oxidation of alkyl benzenes, and hydrolysis of esters, amides, and nitriles.
Charge and protonation state of the acid in acid and base solution.
Preparation of acid chlorides and acid anhydrides. Reaction of these derivatives
with alcohols to form esters and amines or with ammonia and amines to form
Formation of polyesters. Examples of a polyester repeating structure.
Products of acid and alkaline hydrolysis of esters, including charge and protonated state of the products.
General structure of fats and oils, and the differences between these two general classes.
Formation and properties of soaps. General features of detergents.
Structure of phosphoric acid esters (naming not covered, be able to show an example).
Amides and Amines
IUPAC and common names of amides and their amine and acid components, including special names for aromatic amides and aromatic amines. Be able to draw a structure from a name, or name a structure from a drawing.
Products of acid and alkaline hydrolysis of amides, including charge and protonated state of the products.
Formation of polyamides. Examples of a polyamide repeating structure. Structures of nylon-66 and nylon-6.
Structure of urea.
Classification of amines (primary, secondary, tertiary).
Structures of pyrrole, pyridine, pyrimidine, and purine.
Preparation of amines by alkylation (reaction with alkyl halides) of ammonia
or of amines.
Prepartion of amines by reduction of amides, nitriles, and aromatic nitro compounds.
Basic property of amines: reaction with strong acids and with water. Name
the ammonium salts formed.
Reaction of amines with acid chlorides or anydrides to form amides.
Given the pKa values of acids, predict the direction and extent of an acid-base reaction.
It may be helpful to review "Putting It Together", pages 708-713. There is a link to the answers under "External Links" on Blackboard.