Reactions of Carboxylic Acids and Derivatives
(Carey, Chap. 19 & 20)

Reaction Product Notes
carboxylate anions;
water soluble; soaps;
HCO3- diagnostic for carbox.
acid (---> CO2 gas)
Fischer esterification,
   equilibrium, K = 1.
Ester hydrolysis,
   (HO- cat.= saponification)
prep. of methyl esters
reduction of acid or ester
   to 1o alcohol
5 or 6 membered ring
cyclic anhydride
5 or 6 membered ring
prep. of anhydrides
prep. of ketones

prep. of aldehydes
prep. of esters
prep. of amides
aminolysis of esters
double addition of Grignard
hydrolysis of amides;
very slow reaction
prep. of amines
hydrolysis of nitriles;
very slow reaction
prep. of 1o amines
single addition of Grignard;
prep. of ketones
alpha halogenation of
   carboxylic acids
Hofmann rearrangement;
prep. of 1o amines